Traditional designs, patterns and stories infuse contemporary Indigenous Australian art , "the last great art movement of the 20th century";  its exponents include Emily Kame Kngwarreye. The initial Paleo Pacific marginal seafloor was subducted—i. The development of the late Proterozoic Adelaidean province, the other Precambrian succession to be described here, was within a sialic basement. Australia has no state religion ; Section of the Australian Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any religion. Video game classifications and controversies.
Its separate existence was finally assured by the severing of the last connection between Tasmania and Antarctica, but it has been drifting toward the Southeast Asian landmass. As a continent, Australia thus encompasses two extremes: Geologic history of the Earth. The map of the structural features of Australia and the surrounding region shows the distribution of the main tectonic units. The primary distinction is between the plates of oceanic lithosphere , generated within the past million years by seafloor spreading at the oceanic ridges, and the continental lithosphere, accumulated over the past 4 billion years.
The lithosphere is the outer rock shell of the Earth that consists of the crust and the uppermost portion of the underlying mantle; see plate tectonics. The largest area of oldest rocks is the Western Shield , comprising the western half of the continent, which has been eroded to a low relief.
The youngest rocks are found in the growing fold belt of the Banda arcs and in New Guinea at the boundary between the Indian-Australian plate and the Eurasian and Pacific plates. Precambrian rocks occupy three tectonic environments. The first is in shields, such as the Yilgarn and Pilbara blocks of the Western Shield, enclosed by later orogenic mountain belts.
The second is as the basement to a younger cover of Phanerozoic sediment deposited during the past million years ; for example, all the sedimentary basins west of the Tasman Line are underlain by Precambrian basement. The third is as relicts in younger orogenic belts, as in the Georgetown Inlier of northern Queensland and in the western half of Tasmania.
Rocks of Paleozoic age occur either in flat-lying sedimentary basins, such as the Canning Basin , or within belts, such as the east—west-trending Amadeus Transverse Zone and north-trending Tasman Fold Belt. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks occur in widely distributed though poorly exposed basins onshore the Great Artesian Basin in the eastern centre.
The geologic development may be summarized as follows. Archean rocks those more than 2. Individual blocks of Archean rocks became embedded in Proterozoic fold belts those from about 2. The lines of weakness within the mosaic later guided stresses that pulled the blocks apart or pushed them together.
The Proterozoic fold belts that bounded the western and southern sides of the Archean Yilgarn block, for example, became the sites of the continental margin during seafloor spreading in the Mesozoic, and the fold belts of the Amadeus Transverse Zone in central Australia guided the overthrusting of blocks in the north over those in the south during the late Paleozoic.
Proterozoic Australia was part of the supercontinent of Gondwanaland , comprising India and the other southern continents, from about million years ago. At the beginning of the Paleozoic, some million years ago, pieces began to flake off the Australian portion of Gondwanaland when ocean basins opened around its periphery. Off the northwest, an ancient forebear of the Indian Ocean , called the Tethys , transferred continental terranes fault-bounded fragments of the crust from Gondwanaland to Asia; later generations of that ocean rifted material northward, including the biggest and latest terrane of India.
Off the east, an ancient Pacific Ocean opened and closed in the first of a series of back-arc basins or marginal seas that persists to the present. The structure of Australia was determined by the following: Australia ultimately became isolated from its Gondwanaland neighbours India and Antarctica by seafloor spreading. Today, Australia is drifting northward from Antarctica as a result of seafloor spreading in the southeast Indian Ocean and, consequently, is colliding with the westward-moving Pacific Plate to form the strike-slip ranges of New Guinea and the S-shaped fold of the Banda arcs.
This major period of geologic time can be subdivided into the older Archean and the younger Proterozoic eons, the time boundary between them being some 2. In Australia the main outcrop of the Archean and older Proterozoic rocks is in the Yilgarn and Pilbara blocks of the southwest and northwest, respectively.
In the Yilgarn block the oldest known rocks are sialic crust i. The older end of that time span is provided by detrital zircon grains found in younger metasedimentary rock metamorphosed sedimentary rock some 3.
A zircon grain imbedded in 3. The younger end of 3. Subsequent to such igneous rocks being formed, siliceous sedimentary rocks were deposited during an interval of subdued relief and extensive sheets of vein quartz pebbles were concentrated on the surface.
The oldest rocks in the Pilbara block to the north make up a granite-greenstone terrane and so differ distinctly from those of the Yilgarn block. They are mostly 3. The association of basic and acid rocks suggests the possibility that older sialic crust melted. Chert within basalt 3. Iron ores of hematite and goethite have been formed by supergene enrichment of banded-iron formation.
The Yilgarn block became an internally coherent mass only after greenstone and associated granitic terrane had developed from 3.
Mafic and ultramafic rocks those composed primarily of ferromagnesian—dark-coloured—minerals 2. The Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks were joined between 2. Later in the Proterozoic, between 1. That view contrasts with another interpretation that regards most of the western part of Australia as intact since Archean times and considers that most later orogenic activity was ensialic.
The development of the late Proterozoic Adelaidean province, the other Precambrian succession to be described here, was within a sialic basement. The Adelaidean succession crops out in the region of South Australia between Adelaide and the Flinders Ranges and contains an almost complete sedimentary record of the late Proterozoic.
The early Adelaidean Callanna and Burra groups are confined to troughs faulted down into basement. A sheet of sedimentary deposits at the base of the Callanna group was cut by faults into rift valleys that filled with basic volcanic rocks and evaporitic sediment and carbonate rock.
The succeeding Burra group comprises fluvial sediment followed by shallow marine carbonate. The late Adelaidean Umberatana and Wilpena groups unconformably succeed older rocks. The Umberatana group contains a rich record of two glaciations: The Wilpena group comprises extensive sheets of interbedded sandstone , siltstone , and shale deposited during two marine transgressions, during the second of which deep canyons were cut and filled.
The uppermost part of the Wilpena group, in the latest Proterozoic, contains the celebrated Ediacara assemblage of the oldest well-known animal fossils. The Precambrian rocks of Australia provide a rich source of economically important minerals, such as the above-mentioned major iron ore deposits of the Pilbara block and the gold and nickel deposits of the Yilgarn block. Other minerals include diamonds from the Argyle diatreme vertical volcanic conduit filled with breccia in northern Western Australia.
Phanerozoic Australia is divided at the Tasman Line into two parts. Those are a western terrane of exposed Precambrian blocks and fold belts overlain by thin Phanerozoic basins and an eastern terrane of exposed Phanerozoic fold belts and basins. During Phanerozoic times, Australia has been marked by three regimes: Uluru to million years ago , Innamincka to 97 million years ago , and Potoroo the past 97 million years. Each regime, a complex of uniform plate-tectonic and paleoclimatic events at a similar or slowly changing latitude , generated a depositional sequence of distinct facies separated by gaps in deposition.
The Paleozoic Era about to million years ago opened in Australia with the breakup of the Precambrian continent along the Tasman Line and the initial generation of the floor of the Paleo Pacific Ocean by seafloor spreading. In the Adelaide area, wedges of deepwater quartzose sediment advanced over the newly formed seafloor. On the northwestern side of Australia, widespread basalt erupted over the Precambrian platform, possibly during the initial generation of the Paleo Tethyan Sea , and was succeeded by deposition of shallow marine limestone with abundant fossil trilobites and archeocyathids.
The initial Paleo Pacific marginal seafloor was subducted—i. A similar cycle of marginal sea generation and subsequent Mariana-type subduction within oceanic lithosphere accreted a second fold belt to eastern Australia during the Ordovician Period about to million years ago.
That was followed by an interval of block faulting and widespread granitic intrusion in eastern Australia that produced a landscape similar to the present Basin and Range Province of the western United States ; by the late Devonian Period about million years ago the first of a series of magmatic orogenic arcs had become established by Chilean-type subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath continental lithosphere on the eastern margin, and a thick succession of mainly sandstone and shale accumulated in the moatlike foreland basin between the mountain belt and the craton—the flat and relatively stable interior portion of the continent.
It shall be lawful for the Queen, with the advice of the Privy Council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this Act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
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By contrast, the classifications below are legally restricted: Publication classifications are most commonly applied to magazines with visual depictions of nudity or sexual activity, such as many men's magazines. It is uncommon for these ratings to appear on books, even those dealing with adult themes, except in the most controversial cases. The Restricted publications are for adults and they are not to be sold to people under 18 and in Queensland under state law.
They have content, such as nudity or explicit sexual content, that could offend some sections of the adult community. The Restricted categories are subject to various restrictions in different states; for example, one or both categories may only be sold in adults-only premises in certain states. For this reason, some adult magazines are published in two editions in Australia, or just one edited edition which can be sold anywhere with a warning, as Unrestricted Mature.
Video gaming censorship in Australia is considered to be one of the strictest in the western world. This was the subject of complaint in the gaming community, who argued that there is no reason why adults should be prevented from seeing content in games that they could see in a film. Instinctively I'm with you, and it's something I'd be happy to look at, if we are in Government. It was planned to introduce the rating towards the end of The game Saints Row IV became the first game to be refused classification under the new standard on 25 June From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Archived from the original PDF on 8 October The Sydney Morning Herald.
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