What if my opponent does not start the in the position shown in the article? Education is what I need the most, this is just hobby. This will confront him with new opening lines that he probably doesn't know and will make his home preparations useless. All of these "Indian" defenses start with: Bc4 - Bishop's Opening 2.
King's Pawn Games are further classified by whether Black responds with Openings beginning with 1. Openings where Black responds to 1.
The rare instances where the opening does not fall into a more specific category than "King's Pawn Game" are included in codes B00 includes the Nimzowitsch Defence and unusual moves after 1. The Black responses which are given one or more chapters in the Encyclopedia of Chess Openings ECO are given below, ranked in order of popularity according to ChessBase.
A few of these are not entirely obscure, and have received extensive analysis. The remaining replies to 1. MCO does not cover them, considering them so bad as not to merit discussion.
Some have exotic names, they are listed below along with instances where they have been used by strong players. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
How to Play the Opening in Chess. My 60 Memorable Games. Archived from the original on Opening moves that are considered standard often catalogued in a reference work such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings are referred to as "book moves", or simply "book".
Reference works often present move sequences in simple algebraic notation , opening trees, or theory tables. When a game begins to deviate from known opening theory , the players are said to be "out of book". In some opening lines, the moves considered best for both sides have been worked out for twenty to twenty-five moves or more. Some analysis goes to thirty or thirty-five moves, as in the classical King's Indian Defense and in the Sveshnikov and Najdorf variations of the Sicilian Defense.
Players at the club level also study openings but the importance of the opening phase is smaller there since games are rarely decided in the opening.
The study of openings can become unbalanced if it is to the exclusion of tactical training and middlegame and endgame strategy. A new sequence of moves in the opening is referred to as a theoretical novelty. When kept secret until used in a competitive game it is often known as a prepared variation , a powerful weapon in top-class competition. Whether they are trying to gain the upper hand as White, or to equalize as Black or to create dynamic imbalances, players generally devote a lot of attention in the opening stages to the following strategies: Apart from these ideas, other strategies used in the middlegame may also be carried out in the opening.
These include preparing pawn breaks to create counterplay, creating weaknesses in the opponent's pawn structure, seizing control of key squares, making favorable exchanges of minor pieces e.
At higher levels of competition, for many years the main objectives of opening play were to obtain the better position when playing as White and to equalize when playing as Black. The idea behind this is that playing first gives White a slight initial advantage ; for example, White will be the first to attack if the game opens symmetrically Black mirrors White's moves.
Since about the s another objective has gradually become more dominant. According to IM Jeremy Silman , the purpose of the opening is to create dynamic imbalances between the two sides, which will determine the character of the middlegame and the strategic plans chosen by both sides. This idea was a doctrine of the Soviet school of chess.
A third objective, which is complementary to the previous ones and has been common since the 19th century, is to lure the opponent into positions with which the player is more familiar and comfortable than the opponent. This is usually done by transpositions , in which a game that apparently starts with one opening can reach a position that is normally produced by a different opening.
Most players realize after a while that they play certain types of positions better than others, and that the amount of theory they can learn is limited. Therefore, most players specialize in certain openings where they know the theory and which lead to positions which they favor. The set of openings a player has specialized in is called an opening repertoire.
The main elements a player needs to consider in a repertoire are:. A very narrow repertoire allows for deeper specialization but also makes a player less flexible to vary against different opponents.
In addition, opponents may find it easier to prepare against a player with a narrow repertoire. The main openings in a repertoire are usually reasonably sound, that is, they should lead to playable positions even against optimal counterplay. Unsound gambits are sometimes used as surprise weapons, but are unreliable for a stable repertoire. Repertoires often change as a player develops, and a player's advancement may be stifled if the opening repertoire does not evolve.
Some openings which are effective against amateur players are less effective at the master level. For example, Black obtains active play in return for a pawn in the Benko Gambit ; amateur players may have trouble defending against Black's activity, while masters are more skilled at defending and making use of the extra pawn.
Some openings which are played between grandmasters are so complex and theoretical that amateur players will have trouble understanding them. An example is the Perenyi Attack of the Sicilian Defense see diagram which yields an immensely complicated and tactical position that even strong players have difficulty handling, and that is beyond the comprehension of most amateurs. Major changes in the rules of chess in the late fifteenth century increased the speed of the game, consequently emphasizing the importance of opening study.
Thus, early chess books, such as the text of Luis Ramirez de Lucena , present opening analysis, as does Pedro Damiano , and Ruy López de Segura Ruy Lopez's disagreement with Damiano regarding the merits of Nc6 led to 3.
Opening nomenclature developed haphazardly, and most names are historical accidents not based on systematic principles. In the early s the nascent FIDE embarked on a project to standardize opening nomenclature, culminating in the publication of a short booklet in , but this had little impact. The oldest openings tend to be named for geographic places and people. Cities are also used, such as Vienna, Berlin, and Wilkes-Barre. The Catalan System is named after the Catalonia region of Spain.
Chess players' names are the most common sources of opening names. The name given to an opening is not always that of the first player to adopt it; often an opening is named for the player who was the first to popularize it or to publish analysis of it. Some opening names honor two people, such as the Caro—Kann. A few opening names are descriptive, such as Giuoco Piano Italian: More prosaic descriptions include Two Knights and Four Knights.
Descriptive names are less common than openings named for places and people. Some openings have been given fanciful names, often names of animals. This practice became more common in the 20th century. By then, most of the more common and traditional sequences of opening moves had already been named, so these tend to be unusual or recently developed openings like the Orangutan , Hippopotamus, Elephant, and Hedgehog. Many terms are used for the opening as well. To make matters more confusing, these terms are used very inconsistently.
Consider some of the openings named for nationalities: Although these do not have precise definitions, here are some general observations about how they are used. A small minority of openings are prefixed with "Anti-". Chess openings are primarily categorized by move sequences. A few other opening moves are considered reasonable but less consistent with opening principles than the four most popular moves.
The Dunst Opening , 1. Nc3, develops a knight to a good square, but is somewhat inflexible because it blocks White's c-pawn; also, after Note that after 1. Nf3 the analogous Bird's Opening , 1. The Sokolsky Opening 1. The eleven remaining possibilities are rarely played at the top levels of chess.
Of these, the best are merely slow such as 1. Worse possibilities either ignore the center and development such as 1. Black has twenty possible responses to White's opening move.
Many of these are mirror images of the most popular first moves for White, but with one less tempo. Defenses beginning with Defenses with an early The most important scheme of classifying chess openings for serious players is by ECO code , a series of opening codes assigned by the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings.
Although these codes are invaluable for the serious study of the chess opening, they are not very practical for a broad survey of the chess opening as the codes obscure common structural features between related openings.
Since these categories are still individually very large, it is common to divide each of them further. One reasonable way to group the openings is:.
The Indian systems 1. White starts by playing 1. This is the most popular opening move and it has many strengths—it immediately works on controlling the center, and it frees two pieces the queen and a bishop. The oldest openings in chess follow 1. Bobby Fischer rated 1. The most popular second move for White is 2. Nf3 attacking Black's king pawn, preparing for a kingside castle, and anticipating the advance of the queen pawn to d4.
Black's most common reply is Nc6, which usually leads to the Ruy Lopez 3. Bb5 , Scotch Game 3. If Black instead maintains symmetry and counterattacks White's center with Nf6 then the Petrov's Defense results. The Philidor Defense Other responses to 2.
Nf3 are not seen in master play. The most popular alternatives to 2. Nf3 are the Vienna Game 2. Nc3 , the Bishop's Opening 2. Bc4 , and the King's Gambit 2. These openings have some similarities with each other, in particular the Bishop's Opening frequently transposes to variations of the Vienna Game. The King's Gambit was extremely popular in the 19th century. White sacrifices a pawn for quick development and to pull a black pawn out of the center. The Vienna Game also frequently features attacks on the Black center by means of a f2—f4 pawn advance.
In the Center Game 2. An alternative is to sacrifice one or two pawns, for example in the Danish Gambit. Many other variations after 1. In the semi-open games White plays 1. The most popular Black defense to 1. The Pirc and the Modern are closely related openings that are also often seen, while the Alekhine and the Scandinavian have made occasional appearances in World Chess Championship games. The Sicilian and French Defenses lead to unbalanced positions that can offer exciting play with both sides having chances to win.
The Caro—Kann Defense is solid as Black intends to use his c-pawn to support his center 1. Alekhine's, the Pirc and the Modern are hypermodern openings in which Black tempts White to build a large center with the goal of attacking it with pieces.
Other semi-open games have been studied but are less common; see Semi-Open Game for details.
Oct 12, · The best for black is to accept the spatial disadvantage with some Queens Gambit Declined formation because the alternative is to engage in potentially suicidal hypermodern maneuvres. All in all white has more lasting chances to break black's resistance and at least a comfortable draw is not in jeopardy with this system. Chess statistics top 10 best and worst openings for white and black, That will help you to improve the skills of the game of chess. Tags: openings, theory, club player openings, white openings In modern chess having a sound opening repertoire is an essential part of achieving success in tournaments. Professional players spend a lot of time working on the openings in depth, sometimes until the possible endgames that can arise.